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Messages - rakibul

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Examples / What are some common examples of startup business models?
« on: July 06, 2019, 09:40:10 AM »
What are some common examples of startup business models?

There are a wide range of business models practiced by startups. In addition, some early stage startups may not even have a business model in practice today, although they ought to have one or more clearly identified potential business models that they could practice down the road as a result of their value creation.

Below is a brief description of some example startup business models:

Marketplace model - A marketplace is where two or more types of users meet to transact. Typically the marketplace derives its revenue through what is called a marketplace rake, typically a percent of transacted revenue on the marketplace. Instead of a percentage rake, some marketplaces may instead charge fixed transactional fees. Examples of marketplaces include eBay (a marketplace of buyers and sellers of used goods), Uber (a marketplace of car drivers and car riders), Airbnb (a marketplace of hosts and guests), and Instacart (a marketplace of grocery retailers and consumers and FundersClub portfolio company). Marketplaces are extremely hard to get started and to get to a point of constant high liquidity (demand meeting supply), but are very defensible once established.

SaaS (Software as a Service) - A SaaS business model entails delivering software to customers, typically enterprise software to SMB and/or enterprise clients, and charging a subscription (e.g. monthly, annually, etc) for the software. Sometimes, service contracts are also included for deriving revenue from custom support or integration. Sometimes SaaS companies may choose to have a freemium model, wherein entry level plans are free, and more robust plans are paid. Examples of SaaS startups include and Dropbox.

E-Commerce - An eCommerce business model refers to selling goods online and extracting revenue from the transactions through markups on products sold, or through other means. This may seem like an age-old business model, but as of 2015, only about 7% of all retail commerce occurs online. Examples of eCommerce startups include and Warby Parker.

Consumer - A consumer model typically implies a free or low cost app distributed to consumers that provides value to and engagement with consumers, which in turn builds up a valuable distribution channel to consumers that has inherent value today or that can be subsequently monetized. Examples of consumer startups include Instagram and SnapChat; neither heavily monetized, but have built up significant value due to their ubiquity with and engagement with consumers. Consumer apps may sometimes try to monetize via advertising, data, and other means.
API Startups - API business model startups serve the emerging developer economy, typically monetizing via a subscription, SaaS like model based on API usage, in other cases monetizing via transaction fees if processing currency. Examples of API startups include Stripe and Twilio.

Data - Data business model startups derive value from collecting, and in some cases cleaning, reformatting, and/or analyzing data.

Licensing - Licensing startups derive value from licensing intellectual property, which can include patents, trademarks, trade secrets, and know-how. Examples of licensing business models include Arm Holdings which is a fabless semiconductor company.

Hardware - Hardware startups produce hardware-enabled devices and monetize by charging for the devices and/or software and/or services associated with the hardware. Hardware companies include Apple (which also developed a marketplace model w/the App Store and iTunes) and Tesla.


Networking & Events / 9 Benefits of Networking in Business
« on: July 04, 2019, 09:44:22 AM »
9 Benefits of Networking in Business

1. Friendship
This has been mentioned first since it plays an important role just as much as every other point that would be mentioned further. With networking, it is easy for you to end up making great friends since you both think alike. And friends can become a strong building stone for your life, ideas, and even business. Some of the strongest friendships started from networking in the business world.

2. Generation of Referrals
This is an undeniable benefit that many business owners usually join networking groups and participate in networking activities. The best thing about networking to get referrals is that the referrals you get are mostly pre-qualified for you.With the help of these referrals, you can give them the best to turn them into a permanent client. So, in short, you get much higher quality leads with the help of networking as compared to the leads you get from marketing. And with this, your business would also increase.

3. Increased confidence
By networking regularly, you would be able to push yourself to talk to different people and this would eventually increase your confidence. Moreover, being an owner, it is important as the business growth is entirely depending on your way of making connections and talking to people.Eventually, it also turns you into a confident person and the more confident you are the more confident you are in your business. And this would bring out a new color in both your thoughts, actions and ideas for the company as well.

4. Opportunities
A group of business owners who are highly motivated and confident also gets them enough of open opportunities. By networking with different people, you would always come across new opportunities. And aren’t the opportunities why you decided to network with people?Opportunities here means an asset or business sale, writing and speaking opportunities, partnership, client leads, joint ventures and many more. All you need to take care of is choosing the right opportunity and ignoring those that would be harmful to you or your business.Also, the opportunities that you take up should strengthen your business goals, otherwise you would see yourself moving from place to place and opportunity to opportunity and getting nowhere.

5. Positive Influence
It is normal for a person to have an effect mentally after speaking to a person or experiencing something. Just like this, the people you network with does influence what you do and who you are. So, it is always important to surround yourself with those people who are positive and uplifting instead of those who would make you feel negative.Networking is all about growth and with negativity, there isn’t any kind of growth. As a business owner, you do not want to be frustrated with your business. Instead, you want to love it more and make it thrive. Positive people would help in it.

6. Connections
In the business world, it is all about WHO you know and not about WHAT you know. If you want your business to thrive, you need to have enough of reliable connections and few to null enemies. With the help of the connections, anytime you need something, you can easily call them to get some help that is needed.Through networking, you would be able to connect with highly influential people who you wouldn’t be able to connect with easily without the networking.That is not where the networking ends, with each connection you make, they would also have a huge network that they can tap into and introduce you to them. So, if you meet a link, ask the right question to see if they know the person you are looking for.

7. Raising your profile
Another great benefit of networking is getting noticed and being visible. Ensure that you keep every social event and business events so that your face becomes well-known.You can build a reputation for yourself as a supportive, reliable and knowledgeable person by offering tips and useful information to those who need it. When you have earned enough respect among everyone, you will get referrals much more easily.

8. Advice
As mentioned in the first point, networking makes you meet those people who are like-minded. And these people can give you advice on various matters that would help in improving your business.In short, networking is the best way to get advice and expertise on things that you cannot easily catch hold of. You just need to be sure that the person advising you is the right person and isn’t someone trying to bring you down.

9. Satisfaction from helping others
If you are a person who loves to help others and feel that growing is not just for you but those around you as well, networking would allow you to help many. And when you help someone, you earn respect in that person’s heart, referrals, connections, friendship and the most important thing which is the satisfaction of helping a person.With all the points mentioned above, you now know how much networking can do and how important it is for you and your business. So, what are you waiting for? Check out all the social and business events around you and make time to join those events to network and grow your brand and business.


Islamic Finance / What is Islamic finance?
« on: July 02, 2019, 11:27:42 AM »
What is Islamic finance?

Islamic finance may be viewed as a form of ethical investing, or ethical lending, except that no loans are possible unless they are interest-free. The objectives (maqsid) of Islamic finance transactions may be summarised as below:

1.To be true to the Shari’ah principles of equity and justice;
2.Should be free from unjust enrichment;
3.Must be based on true consent of all parties;
4.Must be an integral part of a real trade or economic activity such as a sale, lease, manufacture or partnership.

Islamic finance in a broad sense was practiced predominantly in the Muslim world throughout the Middle Ages, involving various contracts fostering trade and business activities with the development of credit. In Spain and the Mediterranean and Baltic states, Islamic merchants became indispensable middlemen for trading activities. In fact, many concepts, techniques, and instruments to finance trade were later adopted by European financiers and businessmen.In contrast, the term “Islamic finance” in the modern sense appeared only in the mid-1980s. In fact, all the earlier references to commercial or mercantile activities conforming to Islamic principles were made under the umbrella of either “interest-free” or “Islamic” banking.  Islamic finance is founded on the absolute prohibition of the payment or receipt of any predetermined, guaranteed rate of return. This closes the door to the concept of interest and precludes the use of debt-based instruments. The system encourages risk-sharing, promotes entrepreneurship, discourages speculative behaviour, and emphasises the sanctity of contracts.

Basic financial instruments
Islamic markets offer different instruments to satisfy providers and users of funds in a variety of ways: sales, trade financing, and investment.Basic instruments include cost-plus financing (Murabaha), profit-sharing (Mudarabah), leasing (Ijarah), partnership (Musharakah), and forward sale (Salam). These instruments serve as the basic building blocks for developing a wide array of more complex financial instruments, suggesting that there is great potential for financial innovation and expansion in Islamic financial markets.

Fundamental principles of Islamic finance
The basic framework for Islamic finance is a set of rules and laws, collectively referred to as Shari’ah, governing economic, social, political, and cultural aspects of Islamic societies. The Shari’ah originates from the rules dictated by the Qur’an and its practices, and explanations rendered (more commonly known as Sunnah) by the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). Further elaboration of the rules is provided by scholars in Islamic jurisprudence within the teachings in the Qur’an and Sunnah.

The fundamental principles of an Islamic financial system can be summarised as follows:

Prohibition of interest
The prohibition of interest is founded on the prohibition of riba, a term literally meaning “an excess” and interpreted as “any unjustifiable increase of capital whether in loans or sales”; this is the central tenet in mutual dealings.  More precisely, any positive, fixed, predetermined rate tied to the maturity and the amount of principal (i.e., guaranteed regardless of the performance of the investment) is considered riba and is prohibited. The general consensus among Islamic scholars is that riba covers not only usury but also the charging of “interest” as widely practiced.This prohibition is based on arguments of social justice, equality, and property rights. Islam encourages the earning of profits but forbids the charging of interest because profits, determined ex post, symbolize successful entrepreneurship and creation of additional wealth whereas interest, determined ex ante, is a cost that is accrued irrespective of the outcome of business operations and may not create wealth if there are business losses. Social justice demands that borrowers and lenders share rewards as well as losses in an equitable fashion and that the process of wealth accumulation and distribution in the economy be fair and representative of true productivity.

Risk sharing     
Because interest is prohibited, suppliers of funds become investors instead of creditors. The provider of financial capital and the entrepreneur share business risks in return for shares of the profits.Money as “potential” capital. Money is treated as “potential” capital - that is, it becomes actual capital only when it joins hands with other resources to undertake a productive activity. Islam recognises the time value of money, but only when it acts as capital, not when it is “potential” capital.

Prohibition of speculative behaviour
Islamic finance prohibits transactions featuring speculation including extreme uncertainties, gambling, and risks. Therefore, transactions in Islamic finance should be backed by real assets.

Sanctity of contracts
Islam teachings upholds contractual obligations and the disclosure of information as a sacred duty. This feature is intended to reduce the risk of symmetric information and moral hazard.

Shari’ah-approved activities
Only those business activities that do not violate the rules of Shari’ah qualify for investment. For example, any investment in businesses dealing with alcohol, gambling, and casinos would be prohibited. Project finance, which puts emphasis on equity participation in transactions involving real assets, is natural fit for Islamic finance.Simple financial derivatives, such as forward contracts, are being examined because their basic elements are similar to those of the Islamic instrument of deferred sale. They may be used to hedge the risk of owning assets that are subject to unexpected price fluctuations, e.g. foreign currencies, commodities. However, innovations that have resulted in creating exotic financial derivatives to generate lucrative profits through speculation behaviour are prohibited, such derivatives may be equated to a descrition by Warren Buffet, as “derivatives are financial weapons of mass destruction, carrying dangers that, while now latent, are potentially lethal."  Warren Buffet is an American business magnate, investor, and philanthropist, considered by some to be one of the most successful investors in the world.

Microfinance is another candidate for the application of Islamic finance. Islamic finance promotes entrepreneurship and risk sharing, and its expansion to the poor could be an effective development tool, particularly for economic development of marginalised communities as well as poverty alleviation. The social benefits are obvious, since the poor currently are often exploited by lenders charging usurious rates.


Partnership / Compare Types of Partnerships: LP, LLP, GP
« on: July 02, 2019, 11:13:08 AM »
Compare Types of Partnerships: LP, LLP, GP

There are three relatively common partnership types: general partnership (GP), limited partnership (LP) and limited liability partnership (LLP). A fourth, the limited liability limited partnership (LLLP), is not recognized in all states. There are often distinct reasons why business owners choose each of these partnership types, which are explained below. 

Why choose a general partnership?
Ease of creation: No state filing is required. The partnership is created when the partners begin business activities.

Low cost of operation: Because general partnerships are not formed by means of a state filing, they are not required to pay a formation filing fee, ongoing state fees or franchise taxes. The partnership must still obtain the business licenses and permits required for operation however.

Few ongoing requirements:Unlike corporations, general partnerships are not required to hold annual meetings of the owners, issue partnership interest, and keep personal asset separate from business assets. Having a partnership agreement that outlines how the partnership will be managed, the roles of each partner, and what events will cause the partnership to end operations is recommended.

Why choose a limited partnership?
Unlimited liability for general partners only: In a limited partnership (LP), at least one partner has unlimited liability—the general partner(s). The other partners (limited partners) have limited liability, meaning their personal assets typically cannot be used to satisfy business debts and liabilities. The amount of their liability is limited to their investment in the LP.

Limited partners are not involved in management: The general partners oversee the day-to-day operations of the LP. Limited partners are basically silent investors.

Short-term projects/ventures: LPs are often the business type of choice for special situations versus true businesses. For example, films are often formalized as LPs and family estate planning often utilizes LPs.
Why choose a limited liability partnership?
Professional service businesses: Limited liability partnerships (LLPs) can only be created by certain types of professional service businesses, such as accountants, attorneys, architects, dentists, doctors, and other fields treated as professionals under each state’s law.

Personal asset protection:The personal assets of the partners in an LLP typically cannot be used to satisfy business debts and liabilities. The LLP does not shield the partners for liability for their personal acts. Put simply, the LLP cannot limit the liability of owners for their own malpractice.
Tax considerations for partnerships
General partnerships, limited partnerships and limited liability partnerships are all taxed the same. No tax is paid by the partnership. Form 1065 is filed with the IRS, as well as a Schedule K for each owner. The Schedule K lists the owner’s share of the partnership’s income, expenses, etc.

Limited liability protection
Keep in mind that general partnerships offer no liability protection to the owners. The owners are legally considered the same as the business, and personal assets can therefore be considered business assets. Additionally, partners in a general partnership bear responsibility for the actions of the other partners. General partnerships are undoubtedly the easiest to create and have the lowest ongoing costs, but they also provide the highest risk to the partners.


Renewable Energy / Renewable Energy and Energy Access
« on: July 02, 2019, 10:45:48 AM »
Renewable Energy and Energy Access
Main Issue
Renewable energy technologies — which range from wind and solar to hydroelectric, tidal, geothermal and biomass — generate many environmental and economic benefits. By definition, they do not use fossil fuels, which means they generate low or zero greenhouse gas emissions and less pollution. Investments in renewable technologies bring the added benefit of stimulating employment and economic growth, which move the world closer to a low-carbon economy. Dependable and affordable energy supplies are crucial to economic growth in both developed and developing countries — to power homes, connect communities, provide safe water and promote economic and human development. Yet some 1.4 billion people lack access to electricity. About 3 billion people rely on traditional fuels like coal and wood for cooking, and often have poor ventilation in their homes. Nearly 2 million people die each year from pneumonia and chronic lung disease from using these fuels. Switching to renewable energy sources will reduce indoor air pollution, improving health and quality of life for millions around the world. It will also strengthen energy security, which will boost economic growth and help reduce poverty.

What We Do
The GEF is a catalyst to promoting renewable energy on many fronts — from removing barriers and building capacity to direct financing of investments in renewable energy technologies.

Removing barriers: Developing countries face many policy, regulatory, and technical hurdles to adopt renewable energy technologies. The GEF was among the first to help developing and transition countries remove these barriers, and transform their energy markets, such as through renewable feed-in tariffs, and independent power producers.

Innovative finance: The GEF has also been at the forefront of working with the private sector to advance the transformation to renewable energy. We have supported the use of innovative financial tools and mechanisms like energy service companies, partial-risk guarantees, and revolving and equity funds.

Capacity building: The GEF helps recipient countries build technical and institutional capacity by organizing workshops and by training government officials, local engineers and other technical staff.

National policy: Most projects have helped develop the national policies needed to support the renewable energy market. These include funds for national strategies, roadmaps and action plans.

Demonstration projects: Countries need to test new technologies and prepare the marketplace before fully embracing renewable energy. We have pioneered the demonstration and deployment of innovative pre-commercial renewable energy technologies, such as concentrating solar power. This process helps convince stakeholders that renewable energy is a viable approach, and pave the way toward commercialization.

Public acceptance: The GEF helps countries develop standards, testing and certification of renewable energy technologies. We also support activities that help build community trust in renewable energy technologies, such as distribution of promotional material and production of audiovisual tools. Since its inception, the GEF has invested more than US$1.1 billion in 249 stand-alone renewable energy projects, as well as US$277 million in 54 mixed projects with renewable energy components, in 160 developing and transition countries. These investments have attracted additional investment of $14 billion and resulted in emissions reductions of more than 580 million tCO2e.

Investing in Renewable Energy: the GEF Experience

GEF support has been instrumental in putting renewable energy on the agenda of most developing and transition countries — from the People’s Republic of China to India, from Argentina to Brazil, from Mexico to South Africa, from Morocco to Turkey, from the Russian Federation to Romania. The GEF has promoted the demonstration, deployment, diffusion and transfer of renewable energy technologies at every level of society. In households and villages, for instance, the GEF is a leader in financing and disseminating solar home systems, solar lanterns and renewable power for water and irrigation pumps in sub Saharan Africa and South Asia. We also help utilities increase their capacity to operate and integrate renewable power generation into existing facilities and grids.

The GEF in Action: Solar Energy in India
In India, where many people live in remote areas off the power grid, the GEF strengthened the capacity of the Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency (IREDA) to develop off-grid solar energy. Among the results: a five-fold income increase among farmers using photovoltaic (PV) pumps; a 50 percent increase in net income among some traders using solar instead of kerosene lighting; income increases of 15 to 30 percent in some rural households because of increased home industry output; and longer study hours, under better lighting conditions, for children.


Product knowledge / 14 Types of Product Knowledge
« on: July 02, 2019, 10:21:50 AM »
14 Types of Product Knowledge

Product knowledge is the ability to communicate information and answer questions about a product or service. It is considered an important knowledge area for any role that puts you in front of customers, investors or the media. For example, an organization may offer product knowledge training for executive management, sales, marketing and customer service roles. The following are common types of product knowledge.

How the product addresses customer needs. For example, a salesperson who is able to analyze customer needs to develop a proposal to sell the product.

The identity of the product on the market. For example, a salesperson in a luxury fashion shop who can talk about brand legacy.

Customer Experience
Knowledge about the end-to-end customer experience offered by a product or service.

How the product or service compares with the competition.

Knowledge of industry trends, concepts and terminology surrounding your product.

How to use the product.
Complementary Products
How to use other products that are commonly used together with your product. For example, if your software runs on a particular operating system customers will be surprised if you're out of your depth in that environment.

How to install and configure the product.

How to fix problems with the product. This often has several different levels. For example, some problems can be fixed from the user interface and others require a software developer or engineer.

Specifications of the product including the meaning of related terminology.

Knowledge of elements such as APIs that allow customers to customize and extend products and services.

How to integrate the product with other things. For example, how to connect a mobile device to a particular type of network.

Policy & Procedure
The policies and procedures that guide products and service. For example, a salesperson who can describe the restrictions on different types of software licenses.

Mission & Vision
What the product, service or brand is trying to achieve and where it's headed. Often useful for answering basic questions such as "why should I buy this?"


Thomas Edison life lessons Inspirational Success Story

Who is Thomas Edison?
Thomas Edison was America’s greatest inventor and also a great businessman. His inventions created and contributed to modern night lights, phonograph, the motion pictures, and long-lasting practical electric light bulb.He was genuinely a Genius.Among his invention, some were improvements on various other inventions, similar to phone. Some were deliberately tried to invent, similar to bulb and motion picture projector. But, few inventions he stumbled on, like the phonograph.

How Thomas Edison mother’s Letter turned him into Genius
If you learn from your mistakes then you are intelligent. But if you learn from someone’s mistakes, then you are a Genius.
One day, as a little boy, Thomas Edison got back home from school and gave paper to his mom. He said to her, Mother my teacher gave this paper to me and revealed to me just you are to peruse it. What does it say?Her eyes filled with tears, she read the letter anyone can hear about her boy.“Your son is a Genius. This school is not the right place for him, and there are no efficient teachers to train him. So, please train him yourself.”

Edison went to School only for 3 months. It was turning point for him because, he explored many things and developed interest in physics and mathematics.Many years later after Edison’s mother passed away, Thomas Alva Edison had become one of the Greatest inventors of the Century. One day, he was checking his cupboard and found a letter, and it was that his childhood teacher wrote to his mother that day. Edison opened the letter.The matter written in the letter was, ” School cannot allow your son to attend classes anymore, he is mentally impaired. He is rusticated.”

Edison became emotional reading it and then wrote in his diary…

“Thomas A.Edison was a mentally deficient child, whose mother turned him into The Genius of the century.”


Human Resource / What do professionals in HR careers do?
« on: July 02, 2019, 09:35:37 AM »
What do professionals in HR careers do?

Human resources specialists are responsible for recruiting, screening, interviewing and placing workers. They may also handle employee relations, payroll, benefits, and training. Human resources managers plan, direct and coordinate the administrative functions of an organization. They oversee specialists in their duties; consult with executives on strategic planning, and link a company's management with its employees.HR specialists tend to focus on a single area, such as recruiting or training. HR generalists handle a number of areas and tasks simultaneously. Small companies will typically have one or two HR generalists on staff, while larger ones may have many devoted to particular areas and services.

Some typical daily tasks for an HR worker include:
1.Consult with employers to identify needs and preferred qualifications
2.Interview applicants about their experience, education and skills
3.Contact references and perform background checks
4.Inform applicants about job details such as benefits and conditions
5.Hire or refer qualified candidates
6.Conduct new employee orientations
7.Process paperwork

HR managers will also:
1.Plan and coordinate the workforce to best use employees' talents
2.Resolve issues between management and employees
3.Advise managers on policies like equal employment opportunity and sexual harassment
4.Coordinate and supervise the work of specialists and staff
5.Oversee recruitment and hiring process
6.Direct disciplinary procedures


Factors to consider in choosing a color scheme

Aside from the meaning of different colors, business owners should also be aware of the other factors that they should consider in choosing a color scheme, here are some:

Business owners should know what message they want to convey to the public given the kind of business they have, in that case, the message could be matched to an appropriate color shade.

Target market
It is also important for business owners to know their target market and to whom they offer their services or products so that the color will also be appropriate to the kind of encouragement needed for the target customers.

Consistency in the color scheme of a brand strengthens its identity in the market. It also helps the brand to stand out and rise against the tight competition in the industry. Further, consistency also gains the trust, loyalty and familiarity of customers.Color should not be underestimated because studies have already proved that this element has a connection to human behavior and in the long run this color will represent the company in the coming years.


TAX, VAT & AIT / What is a Value-Added Tax – VAT?
« on: June 27, 2019, 03:11:20 PM »
What is a Value-Added Tax – VAT?

Value Added

More than 160 countries around the world use value-added taxation, and it is most commonly found in the European Union. But it is not without controversy. Advocates say it raises government revenues without punishing success or wealth, as income taxes do, and it is simpler and more standardized than a traditional sales tax, with fewer compliance issues. Critics charge that a VAT is essentially a regressive tax that places an increased economic strain on lower-income taxpayers, and also adds bureaucratic burdens for businesses.Value-added taxation is based on a taxpayer's consumption rather than their income. In contrast to a progressive income tax, which levies greater taxes on higher-level earners, VAT applies equally to every purchase.

How a VAT Works
A VAT is levied on the gross margin at each point in the manufacturing-distribution-sales process of an item. The tax is assessed and collected at each stage, in contrast to a sales tax, which is only assessed and paid by the consumer at the very end of the supply chain.Say, for example, Dulce is an expensive candy manufactured and sold in the country of Alexia. Alexia has a 10% value-added tax. Dulce’s manufacturer buys the raw materials for $2.00, plus a VAT of $0.20 – payable to the government of Alexia – for a total price of $2.20.The manufacturer then sells Dulce to a retailer for $5.00 plus a VAT of 50 cents for a total of $5.50. However, the manufacturer renders only 30 cents to Alexia, which is the total VAT at this point, minus the prior VAT charged by the raw material supplier. Note that the 30 cents also equals 10% of the manufacturer’s gross margin of $3.00. Finally, the retailer sells Dulce to consumers for $10 plus a VAT of $1 for a total of $11. The retailer renders 50 cents to Alexia, which is the total VAT at this point ($1), minus the prior 50-cent VAT charged by the manufacturer. The 50 cents also represents 10% of the retailer’s gross margin on Dulce.

VAT's International Track Record
The vast majority of industrialized countries that make up the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) have a VAT system. The United States remains the only notable exception.Most industrial countries with a VAT adopted their systems in the 1980s. Results have been mixed, but there is certainly no tendency among VAT countries to have small budget deficits or low government debt. According to one International Monetary Fund study, any state that switches to VAT initially feels the negative impact of reduced tax revenues despite its greater revenue potential down the road.VAT has earned a negative connotation in some parts of the world where it has been introduced, even hurting its proponents politically. In the Philippines, for example, Senator Rafael Recto, the chief proponent of VAT in the 1990s, was voted out of office by the electorate when he ran for re-election. But in the years that followed its implementation, the population eventually accepted the tax. Recto ended up finding his way back to the Senate, where he became the proponent of an expanded VAT.In 2009 and 2010, respectively, France and Germany famously implemented huge cuts in their VAT rates – France by almost 75%, from a 19.6% rate to a 5.5% rate


ROI - Return on Investment / Rental Property Return Investment Tips
« on: June 27, 2019, 02:54:41 PM »
Rental Property Return Investment Tips

What to Like About Rental Property
Several major factors have driven this shift:
Many people are dissatisfied with the meager returns provided by their savings accounts and investments such as Certificates of Deposit.Several years of record-low interest rates make people wary of future inflation, which drives them away from the bond market. As an alternative, they look to commodities like real estate, which contain perceived inflation-protection.
Many people want to diversify their investments, which means moving away from solely investing in the equities/stock market.Record-low interest rates and housing prices are causing many people to take a closer look at rental property investing.If you want to get into rental property investing, you need to know how to evaluate whether or not a potential rental property is a good investment. These two formulas will help.

The Cap Rate
First, calculate the cap rate. This is the rate of return you'd make on a house if you bought it in cash.Cap rate is the net income divided by the asset cost. For example:

1.You buy a home for $200,000.
2.It rents for $1,500 per month.
3.Your expenses (taxes, insurance, management, repairs, maintenance) average out to $500 per month. (Remember, this does not include the principal and interest payments on your mortgage, but it does include the escrowed sum for taxes and insurance.)
4.Your "net operating income" is $1,000 per month, or $12,000 per year.
5.Your cap rate is $12,000 / $200,000 = 0.06, or 6 percent.
Is six percent a good return on your investment? That's up to you to decide. If you can find higher-quality tenants in a nicer neighborhood, then six percent could be a great return. If you're getting six percent for a shaky neighborhood with lots of risks, then six percent might not be worthwhile.

The One Percent Rule
This is a general rule of thumb that people use when evaluating a rental property. If the gross monthly rent (the rent before expenses) equals at least one percent of the purchase price, they'll look further into the investment. If it doesn't, they'll skip over it.For example, a $200,000 house -- using this rule of thumb -- would need to rent for $2,000 per month. If it doesn't, then it doesn't meet the One Percent Rule.Under this rule, the house brings in gross revenue of 12 percent of the purchase price each year. After expenses, the property may bring a net revenue of 6-8 percent of the purchase price.
This is generally considered a good return, but again, it depends on what area of town you're considering. Nicer neighborhoods tend to have lower rental returns, while shakier neighborhoods tend to have higher returns.

Final Note
Remember, six percent or eight percent (or any percent) doesn't mean as much if that interest is non-compounding. To give your returns the same benefit and the same chance of growth as money in the stock market, you'll need to reinvest 100 percent of the proceeds so your returns can compound upon themselves


Buzz Marketing / How Buzz Marketing Works?
« on: June 27, 2019, 12:16:53 PM »
How Buzz Marketing Works?

Word Of Mouth Marketing
Word of mouth marketing starts with buzz marketing. It involves planning a buzz so well that motivated, satisfied, or impressed people belonging to your target market start spreading your message voluntarily.

Fear Of Missing Out
No one wants to feel ‘left out’ in this digital era triggered by the social media. Not having a vital information or having a feeling that one is not a part of the ‘in’ group releases enough psychological stress that acts as a threat to them. This makes the buzz easier to convert into word of mouth marketing as it has more conversational value. Plus, the social media acts as a catalyst.

Baader-Meinhof Phenomenon
Baadeer-Meinhof Phenomenon is a situation where one stumbles upon an unfamiliar word, name, or buzz, and soon afterwards encounters the same subject again, often repeatedly.It’s the phenomenon which makes you say “I recently heard about it and now it’s everywhere”.Buzz marketing sends you the same message through different channels which makes you experience this phenomenon quite often and the message sticks to your mind.The meme marketing strategy is based entirely on this phenomenon.


The List of documents required for obtaining a trade license are

1.Application Form from Dhaka City Corporation (North Form) or (South Form)

2.National ID card of the entrepreneur

3.Recent receipt or ownership proof

4.Holding Tax payment receipt

5.Recent passport size photo of the entrepreneur

6.Declaration on non-judicial stamp to abide by the rules and regulations of City Corporation/Municipality/Union Parishad

7.Memorandum of Association and Articles of Association

8.Certificate of Incorporation

9.Agreement of partnership

10.Work Permit from Board of Investment

11.Statement of Bank Solvency

TIN Certificate

Applicant is required to obtain the designated Application Form from the City Corporation or relevant Municipality’s Office. Then, the applicant is required to submit filled-in Application Form from the taxation officer together with prescribed supporting documents which will be inspected by the Licensing Supervisor. Upon payment of scheduled fees at the City Corporation or Municipality’s relevant office, the applicant shall receive the trade license provided that all the requirements are met.

Time Limit
Estimated Processing Time for issuing the license is 3-4 working days, however, may vary depending on the nature of the and type of the business.

Scheduled Government Fee
1.The application fee is BDT 10.00.

2.License fee varies between BDT 100.00- 40,000.00 depending on the nature and type of business.

3.For Limited Company, License fee is determined based on paid-up capital.

Renewal of Trade License (Commercial Firms)
Trade Licenses are required to be renewed annually. The documents required are License Book which is provided at the time of issuance of Trade License, challan Book, rent and receipt of ownership proof and TIN Certificate.

Procedure for Renewal
The applicant is required to deposit the scheduled fees at the designated bank. Upon receiving the fee receipt, the City Corporation or Municipality’s relevant zonal office shall complete the renewal process if all the other requirements are met.

Time limit
Estimated processing time for renewing the License is 1-2 working days, however, may vary depending on the nature and type of business.

Scheduled Government Fee
1.The application fee is BDT 10.00.

2.License fee varies between BDT 100.00- 40,000.00 depending on the nature and type of business.

3.For Limited Company, License fee is determined based on paid-up capital.


Robots on the Rise: 5 Examples of Innovations in Industrial Robotics

The term industrial robotics might conjure huge, fast-moving machines engaged in the kind of repetitive, dangerous work that humans used to handle: building automobiles, welding parts, and so on. Although those machines will certainly continue to take on larger roles in manufacturing, innovations in industrial robotics have started to lead humanity in intriguing new directions.From delicate industrial-polishing work to picking fruit for breakfast cereals, these industrial-robotics innovations could solve some of society’s most pressing issues—such as labor shortages and worker-safety improvements. But these new ideas and inventions could also help democratize robotics for widespread use, meaning an even faster transition to a new machine age. Here are five examples of innovations in industrial robotics that are transforming how humans work, design, and live.

1. Modbot Is Breaking Down the Barriers to Industrial Robotics
Putting robotics to use in industrial settings takes large amounts of capital—but if robotics startup Modbot has its way, that won’t be the case for long. Modbot seeks to disrupt the field with its democratic approach to robotics, in which modular robots are pieced together with plug-and-play modules that can be reconfigured as users see fit. Although the company has helped giants such as Siemens and Boeing transform their use of industrial robotics, ultimately, Modbot aims to give anyone with a great idea a chance to change the world. Watch the video.

2. Parts Need a Shine and Polish? SYMPLEXITY’s Robots Are Learning to Make the Grade
When it comes to repetitive tasks—such as putting a car together—industrial robotics can make humans seem a bit unnecessary. That’s not the case with industrial polishing, however, which still requires the human touch. Achieving consistent gloss or matte finishes on parts has proven to be a stubborn problem for industrial robots, which is why a European partnership of 15 businesses and academic institutions from six countries has formed SYMPLEXITY, a project that is exploring augmented reality and machine learning to find a solution. Read the article.

3. Will Robots Enable an Architectural Renaissance?
Free-form architectural elements—ones that use complex double curvature shapes such as parabolas—have so far remained outside the purview of industrial robotics. Danish firm Odico aims to change that with its industrial-robotics system that uses a bendable heated blade and foam blocks to create casting molds for domes and other structural elements. That could remove a huge obstacle for architects whose innovative design ideas might otherwise be derailed by tight project budgets. Read the article.

4. The Robot Revolution: The New Age of Manufacturing—Moving Upstream
Japan and China, nations that enthusiastically embrace technological innovations, are finding new ways to use industrial robotics. That includes “cobots”—lightweight, slower robots that safely work right next to humans—which has been shown to increase productivity. And with a rapidly aging population coupled with low birth rates (a trend seen in other industrialized nations), Japan has been experimenting with robots that can staff restaurants and other service industries. If trends persist, your bartender in Tokyo might soon be a robot that always gets your drink right. Watch the video.

5. Labor Terminators: Farming Robots Are About to Take Over Our Farms
As the agriculture market reels from an acute labor shortage—a trend spurred by immigration crackdowns and young workers viewing such work with disdain—growers have begun exploring industrial robotics to tend and harvest crops. Driscoll, a huge player in the American berry market, has already begun testing a farming robot created by Harvest CROO Robotics, and companies in the United Kingdom and Spain have also started to test the waters. As David Slaughter, professor of biological and agricultural engineering at California’s UC Davis says, the need for robotics in farming is “immediate.” Read the article.


Corporations / The Difference Between a Corporation & a Company
« on: June 27, 2019, 09:47:50 AM »
The Difference Between a Corporation & a Company

The Basics of Sole Proprietorship
Sole proprietorship and general partnerships are the most common forms of business structure and are the easiest to set up. A sole proprietorship is a business comprised of one individual and is not considered a formal organization. Legally, this type of business does not exist separately from its owner.The sole proprietor pays taxes on revenue from the business under his or her own name and is solely responsible for the financial operations of the company, including the payment of business debts. If the business is sued, the owner's personal resources will be at risk. If, as a sole proprietor, you plan to conduct business under your own name, you will not need to file an assumed business name. If you choose another name for your company, you will need to apply for a state-issued assumed name certificate, also known as a DBA (doing business as).

General Partnerships of Two or More People
A general partnership is similar in structure to a sole proprietorship except that this structure involves two or more people. Each partner pays his or her own taxes separately, using his own social security or tax ID number, but the company does not exist as a separate entity. Therefore, the financial resources of the business partners could be at risk in the event of a lawsuit.
Unless the individuals in the partnership plan to use their own surnames instead of an assumed business name, the partners will need to file for a DBA.

Corporations as a Separate Legal Entity
A corporation is a business entity that legally exists separately from its owner(s). The owners of a corporation are shareholders; their percentage of ownership in the business is represented by their corporate stocks or shares. Shareholders can choose a board of directors to manage business operations, or they can create a shareholders' agreement, which will allow them to manage the business directly.Corporations are more complex than unincorporated businesses. You will need to file the taxes for the corporation separately from your personal taxes. In most states, you will not be held personally responsible for corporate debts.

Limited Liability Company
A limited liability company is neither a partnership nor a corporation, but it has some characteristics of both. The owners are able to participate in business decisions, as in a partnership, but an LLC offers some protection of the individual assets of its owners. The flexibility of the LLC has made it a popular choice among business owners.To form a limited liability company, you will need to file a certificate of formation with the Secretary of State office in your state. The form will require you to choose whether your company will be managed by its members or by a manager. Most states will let you complete this form online through the website of the Secretary of State.

Limited Partnerships of Two or More People
A limited partnership is made up of two or more persons, including at least one general partner and one limited partner. Details of this structure may vary from state to state. Business affairs of a limited partnership are conducted according to a partnership agreement created by the partners.The agreement does not need to be filed publicly, but the company does need to file a certificate of formation. If you want to limit the liability of the general partners, you have the option of registering as a limited liability partnership. The Secretary of State can provide these forms.


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